1 the state of matter distinguished from the solid and liquid states by: relatively low density and viscosity; relatively great expansion and contraction with changes in pressure and temperature; the ability to diffuse readily; and the spontaneous tendency to become distributed uniformly throughout any container
2 a fluid in the gaseous state having neither independent shape nor volume and being able to expand indefinitely
3 a volatile flammable mixture of hydrocarbons (hexane and heptane and octane etc.) derived from petroleum; used mainly as a fuel in internal-combustion engines [syn: gasoline, gasolene, petrol]
5 a pedal that controls the throttle valve; "he stepped on the gas" [syn: accelerator, accelerator pedal, gas pedal, throttle, gun]
6 a fossil fuel in the gaseous state; used for cooking and heating homes [syn: natural gas]
1 attack with gas; subject to gas fumes; "The despot gassed the rebellious tribes"
2 show off [syn: boast, tout, swash, shoot a line, brag, blow, bluster, vaunt, gasconade] [also: gassing, gasses, gassed, gasses (pl)]
- Rhymes with: -æs
- uncountable chemistry Matter in a state
intermediate between liquid and plasma that can be contained only
if it is fully surrounded by a solid (or held together by
gravitational pull); it can condense into a liquid, or can
(rarely) become a solid
- A lot of gas had escaped from the cylinder
- countable chemistry A chemical element
or compound in such a state.
- The atmosphere is made up of a number of different gases
- An inflammable gaseous hydrocarbon or hydrocarbon mixture
(typically predominantly methane) used as a fuel, e.g. for cooking,
heating or electricity generation.
- Gas-fired power stations have largely replaced coal-burning ones.
- Methane or other waste gases trapped in one's belly as a result of the digestive process. My tummy hurts so bad, I have gas.
- A humorous event or person.
- He is such a gas!
- A fastball.
- The closer threw him nothing but gas.
state of matter
gas in digestion
- German: Blähung
- Hebrew: גזים m|p
- Latvian: gāze
- Russian: газы
- Swedish: gaser
Etymology 2Shortened from gasoline.
- To give a vehicle more fuel in order to accelerate it.
- The cops are coming. Gas it!
- To fill (a vehicle's fuel tank) with fuel
Confer slang term "a gas", above.
- This is common in speech, but rarely used in writing.
- gas (state of matter)
- This page is about the physical properties of gas as a state of matter. For the uses of gases, and other meanings, see Gas (disambiguation).
Physical characteristicsDue to the electronic nature of the aforementioned particles, a "force field" is present throughout the space around them. Interactions between these "force fields" from one particle to the next give rise to the term intermolecular forces. Dependent on distance, these intermolecular forces influence the motion of these particles and hence their thermodynamic properties. It must be noted that at the temperatures and pressures characteristic of many applications, these particles are normally greatly separated. This separation corresponds to a very weak attractive force. As a result, for many applications, this intermolecular force becomes negligible.
A gas also exhibits the following characteristics:
MacroscopicWhen analyzing a system, it is typical to specify a length scale. A larger length scale may correspond to a macroscopic view of the system, while a smaller length scale corresponds to a microscopic view.
On a macroscopic scale, the quantities measured are in terms of the large scale effects that a gas has on a system or its surroundings such as its velocity, pressure, or temperature. Mathematical equations, such as the Extended hydrodynamic equations, Navier-Stokes equations and the Euler equations have been developed to attempt to model the relations of the pressure, density, temperature, and velocity of a moving gas.
The pressure exerted by a gas uniformly across the surface of a container can be described by simple kinetic theory. The particles of a gas are constantly moving in random directions and frequently collide with the walls of the container and/or each other. These particles all exhibit the physical properties of mass, momentum, and energy, which all must be conserved. In classical mechanics, Momentum, by definition, is the product of mass and velocity. Kinetic energy is one half the mass multiplied by the square of the velocity.
The sum of all the normal components of force exerted by the particles impacting the walls of the container divided by the area of the wall is defined to be the pressure. The pressure can then be said to be the average linear momentum of these moving particles. A common misconception is that the collisions of the molecules with each other is essential to explain gas pressure, but in fact their random velocities are sufficient to define this quantity.
The temperature of any physical system is the result of the motions of the molecules and atoms which make up the system. In statistical mechanics, temperature is the measure of the average kinetic energy stored in a particle. The methods of storing this energy are dictated by the degrees of freedom of the particle itself (energy modes). These particles have a range of different velocities, and the velocity of any single particle constantly changes due to collisions with other particles. The range in speed is usually described by the Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution.
When performing a thermodynamic analysis, it is typical to speak of intensive and extensive properties. Properties which depend on the amount of gas are called extensive properties, while properties that do not depend on the amount of gas are called intensive properties. Specific volume is an example of an intensive property because it is the volume occupied by a unit of mass of a material, meaning we have divided through by the mass in order to obtain a quantity in terms of, for example,\textstyle \frac . Notice that the difference between volume and specific volume differ in that the specific quantity is mass independent.
Because the molecules are free to move about in a gas, the mass of the gas is normally characterized by its density. Density is the mass per volume of a substance or simply, the inverse of specific volume. For gases, the density can vary over a wide range because the molecules are free to move. Macroscopically, density is a state variable of a gas and the change in density during any process is governed by the laws of thermodynamics. Given that there are many particles in completely random motion, for a static gas, the density is the same throughout the entire container. Density is therefore a scalar quantity; it is a simple physical quantity that has a magnitude but no direction associated with it. It can be shown by kinetic theory that the density is proportional to the size of the container in which a fixed mass of gas is confined.
On the microscopic scale, the quantities measured are at the molecular level. Different theories and mathematical models have been created to describe molecular or particle motion. A few of the gas-related models are listed below.
Kinetic theory attempts to explain macroscopic properties of gases by considering their molecular composition and motion.
Brownian motion is the mathematical model used to describe the random movement of particles suspended in a fluid often called particle theory.
Since it is at the limit of (or beyond) current technology to observe individual gas particles (atoms or molecules), only theoretical calculations give suggestions as to how they move, but their motion is different from Brownian Motion. The reason is that Brownian Motion involves a smooth drag due to the frictional force of many gas molecules, punctuated by violent collisions of an individual (or several) gas molecule(s) with the particle. The particle (generally consisting of millions or billions of atoms) thus moves in a jagged course, yet not so jagged as we would expect to find if we could examine an individual gas molecule.
Intermolecular forcesSee also: Intermolecular force
As discussed earlier, momentary attractions (or repulsions) between particles have an effect on gas dynamics. In physical chemistry, the name given to these "intermolecular forces" is the "Van der Waals force".
An equation of state (for gases) is a mathematical model used to roughly describe or predict the state of a gas. At present, there is no single equation of state that accurately predicts the properties of all gases under all conditions. Therefore, a number of much more accurate equations of state have been developed for gases under a given set of assumptions. The "gas models" that are most widely discussed are "Real Gas", "Ideal Gas" and "Perfect Gas". Each of these models have their own set of assumptions to, basically, make our lives easier when we want to analyze a given thermodynamic system.
Real gas effects refers to an assumption base where the following are taken into account:
For most applications, such a detailed analysis is excessive. An example where "Real Gas effects" would have a significant impact would be on the Space Shuttle re-entry where extremely high temperatures and pressures are present.
An "ideal gas" is a simplified "real gas" with the assumption that the compressibility factor Z is set to 1. So the state variables follow the ideal gas law.
This approximation is more suitable for applications in engineering although simpler models can be used to produce a "ball-park" range as to where the real solution should lie. An example where the "ideal gas approximation" would be suitable would be inside a combustion chamber of a jet engine. It may also be useful to keep the elementary reactions and chemical dissociations for calculating emissions.
By definition, A perfect gas is one in which intermolecular forces are neglected. So, along with the assumptions of an Ideal Gas, the following assumptions are added:
- Neglected intermolecular forces
By neglecting these forces, the equation of state for a perfect gas can be simply derived from kinetic theory or statistical mechanics.
This type of assumption is useful for making calculations very simple and easy to do. With this assumption we can apply the Ideal gas law without restriction and neglect many complications that may arise from the Van der Waals forces.
Along with the definition of a perfect gas, there are also two more simplifications that can be made although various textbooks either omit or combine the following simplifications into a general "perfect gas" definition. For sake of clarity, these simplifications are defined separately.
e = e(T) h = h(T) de = C_vdT dh = C_pdT
This type of approximation is useful for modeling, for example, an axial compressor where temperature fluctuations are usually not large enough to cause any significant deviations from the Thermally perfect gas model. Heat capacity is still allowed to vary, though only with temperature and molecules are not permitted to dissociate.
Finally, the most restricted gas model is one where all the above assumptions apply and we also apply:
- Constant Specific Heats
e = C_vT h = C_pT
Although this may be the most restrictive model, it still may be accurate enough to make reasonable calculations. For example, if a model of one compression stage of the axial compressor mentioned in the previous example was made (one with variable C_p, and one with constant C_p) to compare the two simplifications, the deviation may be found at a small enough order of magnitude that other factors that come into play in this compression would have a greater impact on the final result than whether or not C_p was held constant. (compressor tip-clearance, boundary layer/frictional losses, manufacturing impurities, etc.)
Historical SynthesisBoyle's Law was perhaps the first expression of an equation of state. In 1662 Robert Boyle, an Irishman, performed a series of experiments employing a J-shaped glass tube, which was sealed on one end. Mercury was added to the tube, trapping a fixed quantity of air in the short, sealed end of the tube. Then the volume of gas was carefully measured as additional mercury was added to the tube. The pressure of the gas could be determined by the difference between the mercury level in the short end of the tube and that in the long, open end. Through these experiments, Boyle noted that the gas volume varied inversely with the pressure. In mathematical form, this can be stated as: pV = constant.
This law is used widely to describe different thermodynamic processes by adjusting the equation to read pV^n = constant and then varying the n through different values such as the specific heat ratio, γ.
In 1787 the French physicist Jacques Charles found that oxygen, nitrogen, hydrogen, carbon dioxide, and air expand to the same extent over the same 80 kelvin interval.
In 1802, Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac published results of similar experiments, indicating a linear relationship between volume and temperature: V_1/T_1 = V_2/T_2
In 1801 John Dalton published the Law of Partial Pressures: The pressure of a mixture of gases is equal to the sum of the pressures of all of the constituent gases alone. Mathematically, this can be represented for n species as: Pressure_ = Pressure_1 + Pressure_2 + ... + Pressure_n
The compressibility factor (Z) is used to alter the ideal gas equation to account for the real gas behavior. It is sometimes referred to as a "fudge-factor" to make the ideal gas law more accurate for the application. Usually this Z value is very close to unity.
In fluid mechanics, the Reynolds number is the ratio of inertial forces (vsρ) to viscous forces (μ/L). It is one of the most important dimensionless numbers in fluid dynamics and is used, usually along with other dimensionless numbers, to provide a criterion for determining dynamic similitude.
As we saw earlier: Pressure acts perpendicular (normal) to the wall. The tangential (shear) component of the force that is left over is related to the viscosity of the gas. As an object moves through a gas, viscous effects become more prevalent.
In fluid dynamics, turbulence or turbulent flow is a flow regime characterized by chaotic, stochastic property changes. This includes low momentum diffusion, high momentum convection, and rapid variation of pressure and velocity in space and time.
Particles will, in effect, "stick" to the surface of an object moving through it. This layer of particles is called the boundary layer. At the surface of the object, it is essentially static due to the friction of the surface. The object, with its boundary layer is effectively the new shape of the object that the rest of the molecules "see" as the object approaches. This boundary layer can separate from the surface, essentially creating a new surface and completely changing the flow path. The classical example of this is a stalling airfoil.
Maximum Entropy Principle
As the total number of degrees of freedom approaches infinity, the system will be found in the macrostate that corresponds to the highest multiplicity.
Equilibrium thermodynamics applies if the energy change within a system occurs on a timescale large enough for a sufficient number of molecular collisions to occur so that the energy transfer between molecules and between energy modes to allow the new energy value to be distributed in equilibrium among the molecules. (For typical systems, this is on the order of a few nanoseconds)
EtymologyThe word "gas" was invented by Jan Baptist van Helmont, perhaps as a Dutch pronunciation re-spelling of "chaos".
- John D. Anderson. Modern Compressible Flow: Third Edition New York, NY : McGraw-Hill, 2004. ISBN 007-124136-1
- Philip Hill and Carl Peterson. Mechanics and Thermodynamics of Propulsion: Second Edition Addison-Wesley, 1992. ISBN 0-201-14659-2
- John D. Anderson. Fundamentals of Aerodynamics: Fourth Edition New York, NY : McGraw-Hill, 2007. ISBN-13: 978-0-07-295046-5 ISBN-10: 0-07-295046-3
- National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). Animated Gas Lab. Accessed February, 2008.
- Georgia State University. HyperPhysics. Accessed February, 2008.
- Antony Lewis WordWeb. Accessed February, 2008.
- Northwestern Michigan College The Gaseous State. Accessed February, 2008.
gas in Afrikaans: Gas
gas in Arabic: غاز
gas in Asturian: Gas
gas in Belarusian: Газ
gas in Bosnian: Plin
gas in Bulgarian: Газ
gas in Catalan: Gas
gas in Czech: Plyn
gas in Welsh: Nwy
gas in Danish: Gas
gas in German: Gas
gas in Estonian: Gaas
gas in Modern Greek (1453-): Αέριο
gas in Spanish: Gas
gas in Esperanto: Gaso
gas in Basque: Gas
gas in Persian: گاز
gas in French: Gaz
gas in Scottish Gaelic: Gas
gas in Galician: Gas
gas in Korean: 기체
gas in Croatian: Plin
gas in Ido: Gaso
gas in Indonesian: Gas
gas in Icelandic: Gas
gas in Italian: Gas
gas in Hebrew: גז
gas in Kannada: ಅನಿಲ
gas in Georgian: აირი
gas in Swahili (macrolanguage): Gesi
gas in Kurdish: Gaz
gas in Latin: Gasium
gas in Latvian: Gāze
gas in Lithuanian: Dujos
gas in Lojban: gapci
gas in Hungarian: Gáz
gas in Macedonian: Гас
gas in Malay (macrolanguage): Gas
gas in Dutch: Gasvormig
gas in Japanese: 気体
gas in Norwegian: Gass
gas in Norwegian Nynorsk: Gass
gas in Novial: Gase
gas in Occitan (post 1500): Gas
gas in Low German: Gas
gas in Polish: Gaz
gas in Portuguese: Gás
gas in Quechua: Wapsi
gas in Russian: Газ
gas in Sicilian: Gas
gas in Simple English: Gas
gas in Slovak: Plyn
gas in Slovenian: Plin
gas in Serbian: Гас
gas in Serbo-Croatian: Gas
gas in Finnish: Kaasu
gas in Swedish: Gas
gas in Tamil: வளிமம்
gas in Thai: แก๊ส
gas in Vietnamese: Chất khí
gas in Turkish: Gaz
gas in Ukrainian: Газ
gas in Vlaams: Goaze
gas in Yiddish: גאז
gas in Yoruba: Ẹfúùfù
gas in Chinese: 气体
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